Both. I think some of it is innate. Some of it falls back on his rotten, shit-for-brains parents and their stupid religion.
I agree he wouldn't have had seven kids if he had a real choice. (Before anyone says it, it's hard AF to leave what you know even if you have an education, support, and a way out. Smuggar had none of them.) Smuggar was visibly disappointed when Ofsmuggar announced M3, and he's basically looked checked out each announcement since then.