All possible reasons for sure but I also wonder if Andy hates cardamom. It reminded me of season 4, I think, when John Torode was the guest chef and he hated (Mindy's?) dish while the trio loved it. It's very rare to see a judge dislike a dish a lot while the other 2 rave about it.
The degree to which Laura undercooked her pasta is important. From what she saw, she said the pasta looked cooked. The judges' comments, meanwhile, weren't saying that her pasta was raw, just slightly underdone. If that pasta needed 15-30 seconds more to cook through, I don't think a balanced dish with slightly undercooked pasta should lose to a "spicier", unbalanced dish.
I re-watched the judging on Reece's second dish and Andy added that he wanted more pumpkin in the dish before being cut off by Jock. If that is the case, then it's a bit more concerning. Reece made a spiced pumpkin cake. It should have been the main element and yet Andy remarked that he wanted more pumpkin. Was the cardamom overpowering the pumpkin cake or did his cake not have enough pumpkin in it?